3. Maintaining unity in the church, 1:11-4:21
Secular reasoning and the gospel are mutually exclusive, 1:18-2:16
a) We preach Christ crucifiedArgument
In the passage before us Paul develops a contrast touched on in verse 17. The contrast is between "words of human wisdom" and the gospel of the "cross of Christ." Paul argues that the gospel is not something that needs improving by the addition of human wisdom. In fact, the message concerning the cross of Christ has no sense to it. As far as human reasoning is concerned, the gospel is foolishness. So, beware of testing it by human wisdom.
i] In 1:11-4:21, the opening section of the letter, Paul addresses a church divided and in conflict. Two, possibly even four parties/groups seem to have developed: the Paul, Appolos (Apollos was a "native of Alexandria... a learned man, with a thorough knowledge of the Scriptures", Act.18:24-28), Peter and "Christ" parties/groups. Paul had obviously come in for some heavy criticism, so he seeks to calm the dispute in the church while defending his apostolic role and his gospel. Clearly, the Corinthians had overvalued human wisdom and devalued the gospel, so in 1:18-25 Paul sets out "to expound the true meaning of divine and human wisdom, and of the gospel", Barrett.
ii] The structure of 1:18-2:5. This passage divides into three paragraphs which together argue that human wisdom and the gospel are mutually exclusive. "How can the gospel of Christ be a form of sofia (wisdom) when (a) the message concerns a crucified Christ, 1:18-25; (b) its recipients at Corinth are far from 'wise' or influential in the sense understood by the world at large, 1:26-31; and (c) Paul's own preaching when he came to Corinth was not characterized by the kind of cleverness designed to impress an audience, 2:1-5?", Thiselton.
iii] Wisdom in Corinth. In the passage Paul contrasts "eloquent [human] wisdom" with the "wisdom of God". The content of the wisdom of God is the gospel, "Christ crucified". The content of human wisdom, or "knowledge" is not actually detailed. The reason probably lies in the multiplicity of groups/parties operating within the Corinthian church, a multiplicity of parties possessing a multiplicity of world views. At one extreme there is a "touch not, taste not" nomism, and at the other extreme an "all things are lawful" libertarianism, a spirituality that transcends the flesh. So, at this point in his letter Paul simply denounces the "knowledge" which supplants the gospel, before addressing the specific problems that are troubling the church.
Text - 1:18
True wisdom, v18-25: i] The wisdom of this world is foolishness, v18-21.
gar "for" - Expressing cause/reason, introducing an explanation of v17b.
oJ logoV "the message" - the word. The word of the cross is content laden whereas the wisdom of words, v17, are just mere words which appear to be wise, cf. Barnett; "they are mutually exclusive", Fee.
tou staurou (oV) gen. "of the cross" - Usually classed as an objective genitive where the cross is "the object of the act of proclaiming", Thiselton, although adjectival, content seems more likely where the content of the message is the cross; "the message whose content is the cross" - "the cross" makes up the substance of the message. The cross is central to the gospel message in that it is the means by which we attain the gift of eternal life.
mwria abstract noun "[is] foolishness" - stupidity, nonsense. It is a nonsense that the wisdom of God can be found in the public crucifixion of an accused blasphemer.
toiV ... apollumenoiV (apollumi) dat. pres. part. "to those who are perishing" - to the ones ruined, lost, perishing. The participle serves as a substantive, dative of interest, "for those who are on the way to destruction", or reference/respect, "with respect to those on their way to destruction." Indicating future judgment.
de "but" - but, and. Here adversative.
sw/zomenoiV (swzw) dat. pres. pas. part. "to [us] who are being saved" - to [us] being saved. Dative participle as above.
qeou (oV) "[the power] of God" - [a power] of God. The genitive is adjectival, possessive, ie. "power" is an attribute of God. The anarthrous phrase itself is descriptive of the process of "being saved." The preaching of the cross, the gospel, on one hand is foolishness, but on the other is "a power of God" operative for our salvation.
gegraptai (grafw) "[for] it is written" - [for] it has been written. Often used to introduce a quotation; "It stands written." Quote is from the LXX, Isaiah 29:14.
twn sofwn adj. "[the wisdom] of the wise" - The adjective serves as a substantive, with the genitive being possibly verbal, subjective, or better possessive; the wisdom possessed by the wise is a way of thinking, a worldly reasoning.
aqethsw (aqetew) "I will frustrate" - set aside, disregard, repudiate. The LXX has "I will hide"; "bring to nothing", AV.
pou adv. "where" - Interrogative adverb. The wise of this age regard the gospel as foolishness, but in the revelation of the gospel, the wisdom of God, it will be the wisdom of this age that will be exposed as foolishness.
tou suzhththV "the philosopher" - disputant, debater.
tou aiwnoV (wn onoV) gen. "of [this] age" - The genitive is adjectival, possessive. Used here of the age stretching out to the dawning of the new age, eternity - "the state of things now present" R&P. The word has a similar meaning to "this world" and the "world to come."
ouci "[Has] not [God]" - A strong negation used in a question expecting the answer "yes".
emwranen (mwrainw) aor. "made foolish" - [did not God] regard as a nonsense, render foolish, as dumb, make foolish. "God revealed the world's wisdom as folly", possibly made it a folly, but "revealed" is closer to the meaning of the text. God "has, as it were, befooled wisdom", Godet.
tou kosmou (oV) gen. "of the world" - The genitive is adjectival, possessive; the wisdom that belongs to the world; "has not God shown the wisdom of this world to be a foolish thing", Cassirer.
gar "for" - Expressing cause/reason, introducing an explanation as to how God made foolish / exposed the foolishness of, the wisdom of the world, v20b. It was epeidh, "because" God chose to reveal himself / his wisdom to those who believe through the preaching of the gospel, i] the wise in their speculation having proved unable to know him / understand true wisdom, eg. Fee, or ii] he having chosen to hide from the speculation of the wise, eg. Barnett. The choice between these two options is unclear. What is clear is that because of human non-wisdom God has acted to reveal his own unique wisdom. Of this non-wisdom Calvin states "it is the blindness of the human mind, which, surrounded by light, sees nothing."
en "in" - Either expressing i] space/sphere of influence. God's wisdom is seen in his creative works, but the world did not recognize it. ii] Instrumental, "by", referring to God's plan of salvation. "For since, by God's wise plan, the world, exercising its own wisdom, did no know God, God chose to save those who had not wisdom, but faith, not by their own wisdom, but by the folly of the Christian preaching", Barrett.
th/ sofia/ (a) "wisdom" - Here it is a good wisdom, God's wisdom, probably of his self-disclosure, revelation; "the possibility of knowing God does not belong essentially to man (as a property); it is bestowed on him by revelation", Conzelmann. Possibly the wisdom here is God's plan of salvation. God's wisdom does focus on the cross and is therefore, regarded as foolishness by the standards of human reasoning. "As God has ordained in his wisdom", Cassirer.
egnw (ginwskw) aor. "know" - Although God's presence is clearly observable in creation, flawed human reasoning (a wisdom affected by the fall) devalues the evidence and therefore does not come to a knowledge of God. The knowledge of God comes by faith/folly, not by human reasoning (wisdom). It is possible Paul is arguing against those who contend that they can know God through wisdom.
dia + gen. "-" - [the world did not know God] through, by means of [the (its) wisdom]. Instrumental.
eudokhsen (eudokew) aor. "[God] was pleased" - "Please", but also an act of the will like "choose" may better express Paul's intended sense; "God therefore decided to save those who believe by the folly of the message we preach", Barclay.
tou khrugmatoV (a atoV) "of what was preached" - of the proclamation, preaching. The genitive is adjectival, epexegetic / appositional. Paul is using the word of gospel communication, even the content of gospel communication, namely the cross, but not of preaching in church.
swsai (swzw) aor. inf. "to save" - The infinitive forms an object clause / epexegetic / dependent statement expressing what God was pleased to do.
touV pisteuontaV (pisteuw) pres. part. "those who believe" - the ones believing. The participle serves as a substantive.
ii] The foolishness of the cross is true wisdom, v22-25. As Fee notes, Paul now develops the idea that "the message of the cross is foolishness", v18. He makes two points: i] Worldly wisdom and divine wisdom (found in the message of the cross) stand in absolute contradiction to one another, and ii] The message of the cross, a seeming foolishness to the wise, is where God's redeeming power is active for humankind.
epeidh conj. " -" - since, because. Causal conjunction. A repetition of the syntax found in v21, but it's causal strength must be limited otherwise v23 doesn't quite work. R&P suggest that it introduces a kind of conditional sentence, v22 serving as the protasis and v23 and 24 as the apodosis; "since Jews and Gentiles alike demand something which suits their unsympathetic limitations, we, de on the other hand, preach ....."
aitousin (aitew) pres. "demand [miraculous signs]" - ask [signs]. They are without faith and therefore ask for a visible evidence. The Pharisees looked for signs of their own invention ("a cow giving birth to a lamb in the temple", Barnett), but when faced with the true signs of the coming kingdom in Christ they ignored them.
EllhneV "Greeks" - here the same as Gentiles, or maybe particularly those who seek to know God through worldly wisdom.
zhtousin (zhtew) pres. "look for" - seek. "Jews ask for miraculous proofs and the Greeks an intellectual panacea", Phillips.
de "but" - but, and. As noted above, introducing the apodosis of an unconventional conditional clause; "The Jews ...... but as for us, we preach ...."
khrussomen ( khrussw) pres. "preach" - proclaim as heralds. The modern meaning is "communicate."
estaurwmenon (staurow) perf, pas. part. "crucified" - having been crucified. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "Christ", "who has been crucified." The content of the communication is "Christ crucified." Everyone brings their own bias to the exposition of this phrase. For example, the atonement is a popular focus. Yet, Paul is into comparing a worldly wisdom with a divine wisdom. The worldly person seeks to know the divine through reason (wisdom) - a reaching up to God. Yet, the gospel proclaims that God has graciously reached down to us through the cross such that knowing God is through faith rather than wisdom. To the child of human reasoning, such is a foolishness. So "Christ crucified" is probably best expounded in the terms of God's grace.
men .... de .... "-" - on the one hand [a stumbling block ... ] but on the other [foolishness .....]. Comparative construction.
skandalon (on) "stumbling block" - something that trips someone up, a cause of stumbling.
IoudaioiV dat. adj. "to Jews" - As for "to Gentiles", a dative of interest / feeling, "in the opinion of."
de "but" - but, and. Here adversative.
toiV klhtoiV (kalew) "to [those] whom God has called" - to [those] the called ones. The adjective serves as a substantive, dative of interest; "with respect to." The call of God is always a difficult concept, given that Paul never fully teases it out. It may simply mean "invitation", but then it may mean "effectual call". God's call of a people to himself is often described in "effectual" terms, although of individuals it is often in terms of "invitation." Robertson and Plummer suggest that the phrase is parallel to v18, "us who are being saved" - "actual believers", ie. touV pisteuontaV, "those who believe", v21. So, we are probably dealing with "an appeal to personal experience" rather than an effectual call or invitation to salvation.
te kai "both [Jews] and [Greeks]". both and. "Be they Jews or Greeks", Cassirer.
Criston (oV) "Christ" - Most likely alluding to "Christ crucified", v23, rather than referring to the person of the messiah, ie. the phrase "Christ is God's power and God's wisdom" stands in apposition to "Christ crucified."
dunamin (iV ewV) "power" - For those being saved, the message of the cross is not a scandal, a useless sign, but is rather the power of God unto salvation.
qeou (oV) gen. "of God" - Emphatic by position. The genitive is probably adjectival, possessive; "Christ is God's power and God's wisdom" for the salvation of all who believe, Rom.1:16.
sofian (a) "wisdom" - Here the wisdom of God is something more than his wise plan, it is his effectual plan realized through the message of the cross.
oJti "for" - that. Thiselton takes the conjunction as causal, as NIV, such that this verse serves to explain further the power and wisdom of God. Yet, the verse virtually summarizes the argument of v18-25, and this in the form of a maxim, such that oJti virtually has a recitative force; "And so it is, divine folly is wiser than any human wisdom, and divine weakness is stronger than any human strength", Cassirer (the paradox serves a rhetorical end and is not suggesting that God is foolish or weak). "Paul's theology of the cross climaxes in a triumphant expression of a glorious paradox", Pfitzner.
to mwron (oV) adj. neut. "the foolishness" - the foolish. The cross of Christ is God's foolishness.
tou qeou (oV) gen. "of God" - The genitive is adjectival, possessive.
sofwteron comp. adj. "wiser" - Comparative adjective.
twn anqrwpwn (oV) "than man's wisdom" - of men. The genitive is ablative, comparative, as NIV.
to asqeneV (hV) "the weakness" - the weak thing. God's weakness is stronger than human strength. As a maxim the verse states, for argument sake, that if God had any weaknesses they would be far greater than any human strength.