First rebuttal argument, 6:1-8:39

1. Consecrated to God, 6:1-14

Raised to new life


Paul has argued that a believer, now excluded from the realm of sin and death and included in the domain of God's grace / righteous reign, by means of faith (Christ's faithfulness + our faith), may fully share in the promised covenant blessings / the fullness of new life in Christ. "The weak" / nomists / members of the circumcision party, have sought to counter this argument. It seems likely that they have raised two substantive arguments against Paul's gospel of grace:

First, that Paul's gospel promotes libertarianism; it is antinomian - "Why not sin that grace may abound?" In his first argument, Paul will contend that those who have died to sin through faith cannot go on living in it.

Second, that Paul's gospel is flawed because it has failed to enable Israel to appropriate God's promised blessings in Christ. In his second argument, Paul will contend that with respect to Israel, God's word of grace has not malfunctioned.

In the opening argument of his first rebuttal of the nomist critique, v1-14, Paul makes the point that a believer "in Christ", "united" to him, is holy / consecrated to God, and consequently begins to express that reality in their daily life.

When a person believes in Jesus they are united to / identified with Jesus in his death and resurrection. Our old life of sin is hid with Christ in his death such that "we might no longer be enslaved to sin", and our new life grows with Christ in his resurrection such that, through the Spirit, we might "walk in newness of life." Thus, we are dead to sin and alive to God through our identification with Christ Jesus, v2-11. The implication of this truth is be what you are - realize this reality by not letting sin reign in your lives, v12-13. We will sin, but our orientation will be toward godliness. It is possible for us so to live because sin no longer rules over us, no longer has us in its power, v14a. Sin's power is broken because Christ has fulfilled / completed the law such that a believer is no longer under the constraints of covenant law, a law which serves only to stir up sin to greater rebellion by making sin more sinful. So consequently, the written code is replaced with the loving character of Christ written on our heart by the indwelling Spirit of Christ, v14b.


i] Context: See 1:1-7. With this chapter we face a shift in the argument / structure. As Bultmann observed, the rhetorical form of Romans is that of a diatribe where the author / lecturer first states his thesis to his audience / students, then expounds the thesis, and then moves on to a refutation of objections.

Paul first outlines his thesis in 1:16-17:


The righteous reign of God,
out of faith,
apart from the law,
facilitates the fullness of new life in Christ


A person who is set right with God through faith,
possesses the fullness of new life in Christ,
and this apart from law-obedience.


Paul then establishes his thesis in three parts,1:18-5:21:

Part 1: In establishing the impartial nature of God's condemnation of sin, Paul first argues in 1:18-32 for the universal state of human sin, an all-inclusive condition which prompts God's righteous condemnation. Then in 2:1-3:20, Paul focuses on those committed to the Torah, the Law of Moses, those who would "judge others", 2:1. They, as with the rest of humanity, exist in a state of sin, and, with the rest of humanity, face judgment under the Law.

Part 2: Paul then expounds the first part of Habakkuk 2:4, "He who is righteous out of faith". The impartial nature of God's righteous vindication of the just in Christ, 3:21-4:25.

Part 3: Then the second part, "Will live", Hab.2:4. The consequential blessings that flow to the righteous in Christ, namely, "life", the fullness of new life in Christ that properly belongs to a believer apart from works of the law, 5:1-21.


Now Paul confronts the objections of his nomist opponents, the members of the circumcision party, "the weak", 6:1-11:36.

Paul begins by paraphrasing the central argument used against him by his nomist opponents, namely that his doctrine of justification by faith logically encourages libertarianism; it is antinomian. Paul's teaching amounts to "Let us do evil that good may result", 3:8.


"So, what do we do?
Keep on sinning that God can keep on forgiving?", 6:1.


The nomist logic is as follows: If, through Christ's atoning sacrifice, God's undeserved favour toward his children serves to obtain our right-standing in his sight, holiness and ultimately the full appropriation of the promised covenant blessings, and if his undeserved favour toward us / his grace, in a sense, increases when sin increases, would it not be true to imply that it is right for us to go on sinning that God's favour may be multiplied more and more? "God forbid! / What a stupid idea!", says Paul.


It was implied by Paul's law-bound opponents ("the weak", nomists) that his thesis undermines the law's role in making one holy for the full appropriation of God's promised blessings. Paul rebuts this charge:

6:1-23: "Dead to sin" = freedom to live for God.

7:1-6: "Dead to law" = freedom to live for God.

7:7-25: An argument against the implication that "the law is sin", that it destroys and enslaves. Not so! says Paul; it is sin that destroys and enslaves.

8:1-39: The mechanism by which a believer experiences the freedom to live for God, namely, the ministry of the Holy Spirit.


Paul's final assault on the nomist critique is presented in chapter 9-11. For the nomists, Paul's gospel, the news concerning a righteousness that is through faith apart from law, not only undermines the pursuit of holiness, and thus blessing, it is divisive and alienates the faithful children of Israel. To this critique Paul declares "don't even think for a moment that God's word of grace ("my gospel"!!!) has malfunctioned!", 9:6a. Israel's failure to accept "God's word", the gospel of grace, has nothing to do with the content of the message itself.

In the following chapters Paul explains why so very few Jews have accepted the gospel: not all Jews are part of God's true Israel, 9:6b-29; and national Israel's unbelief is driven by the heresy of nomism, 9:30-10:21. Paul concludes by making the point that Israel's present state of unbelief does not annul God's promises - Israel is not doomed to final rejection because a representative whole will inevitably be saved, 11:1-32.


ii] Background: The Nomist heresy 1:8-15.


iii] Structure: The righteous in Christ are raised to new life in him:

The nomist critique, v1;

If Paul's gospel were correct then believers might as well continue to live in sin apart from the law since divine grace flows freely, irrespective of the worth of one's life.

Paul's critique of the nomist's false logic, v2-11:

Buried with Christ, therefore no longer "enslaved to sin", v2-7;

Raised with Christ, therefore we "walk in newness of life", v8-10.

Summary, v11;

Right living, irrespective of the law, rests on the fact that a believer is dead to sin and alive to God in Christ.


iv] Thesis: See 3:21-31.


v] Interpretation:

The argument of "the weak" / nomists: Paul has argued that the righteous reign of God / divine grace, out of faith, of itself facilitates the full appropriation of the promised covenant blessings / fullness of new life in Christ. Against this proposition the nomist believers argue that free grace promotes free sin. They believe that obedience to the Mosaic law (and probably NT / Jesus' ethic as well) is the means by which a believer restrains sin and progresses holiness and thus moves their Christian life forward for the full appropriation of the God's promised blessings. If it is all of grace, the nomists argue, then logically we might as well increase our sinning that God's grace in forgiveness might increase.


"Died to sin": Endless debate is prompted by Paul's statement that a believer has "died to sin", v2, 7, 11, been "set free from sin" v18, 22. Are we free from the condemnation of sin, or free from the power of sin? Of course, both are true, but it seems likely that Paul is speaking in the passage before us of a freedom from the power of sin. Those who opt for a freedom from the condemnation / guilt of sin must explain the link between God's declaration of innocence and moral behaviour.

Luther argues the case with these words: "For someone who knows this doctrine and uses it properly, even evil will have to cooperate for good. For when his flesh impels him to sin, he is aroused and incited to seek forgiveness of sins through Christ and to embrace righteousness of faith, which we would otherwise not have regarded as so important or yearned for with such intensity. And so it is very beneficial if we sometimes become aware of the evil of our nature and our flesh, because in this way we are aroused and stirred up to have faith and to call upon Christ." Lectures on Galatians, 1535.

Sin's hold over us is put to death, is no more, has "died", metaphorically speaking, both in a legal sense and a moral sense:

iIn the legal sense - sin no longer separates us from God in that Christ has taken our penalty himself.

iIn a moral sense - sin no longer has a hold on us because we are free from the law which served to make sin more sinful.

The choice between these two options has prompted endless debate, but seeing that Paul is arguing for freedom from the law, as opposed to the nomists who see law-obedience as necessary for the promotion of holiness, it is more than likely that a moral sense is front and foremost in his mind. In his life and in his death, Christ has fulfilled / completed the law, such that in Christ's faithfulness / obedience a believer stands perfect before God. The law, having led us to Christ, has served its purpose. Through his indwelling Spirit the law is written on our heart such that we now (always imperfectly) fulfil the law's requirements, and this apart from the legal demands of the law. Thus "we have died to the power of sin."


"Died / crucified with Christ / immersed in his death; Risen / alive with Christ": In this passage there are numerous references to a believer's association with Christ's death and resurrection. A believer has died with Christ and risen with Christ, but what does this mean? Paul could simply be saying that by being in Christ / united to Christ / associated with Christ / in a relationship with Christ / belonging to Christ / .... a believer receives the benefits that accrue from Christ's death and resurrection. Paul may have in mind the forensic benefits, and they are certainly real enough - Christ wears our condemnation in his sacrifice such that we now stand innocent / perfect / glorified in God's sight.

Given the context, it is more than likely that moral benefits are in mind - the old self is dead; the new self is alive to the potential of a life lived freely in obedience to God through the indwelling Spirit (v8, sunzhsomen, fut. "will live together [with him]", = will live now, although Moo leans toward an eschatological sense). Of course, the new life is not a life free from sin itself - "the old Adam retains his power until he is deposited in the grave", Luther. Note the following key verses that touch on this subject.. 2Cor.13:4, 14:14, Gal.2:19, Eph.2:5, Col.2:13, 20, 4:1, 1Thess.4:14, 17, 5:10, 2Tim.2:11f.

Sin's power over our life is weakened in two particular ways:

First, we who are united to Christ in his death are dead to the authority of the law. God's law primarily serves to expose sin, make sin more sinful, and so drive the sinner to God for mercy; the law serves to lead us to Christ, Rom.5:20, Gal.3:23-25. Having served this purpose, we are now freed from the authority of the law, and so sin's power over us, once stirred up by the law, is weakened. Of course, again we must emphasise the fact that free from the power of sin does not mean that we are free from sin. "We acknowledge that regeneration is so effected in us that, until we slough off this mortal body, there remains always in us much imperfection and infirmity, so that we always remain poor and wretched sinners in the presence of God." The Geneva Confession.

Second, We who are united to Christ in his resurrection are alive to God through his empowering grace. Christ's resurrection power, his resurrection life (a life lived to God, pleasing to God) is imaged in us through the renewing power of the indwelling Spirit of Christ. "Christ in us" becomes life to our fleshly bodies, Gal.2:20, 3:14, 5:16; His indwelling-compelling love shapes us and so sin's power over us is weakened.

A believer is able to "walk in newness of life" because sin no longer rules over us, it no longer has us in its power, and this because, on the one hand, we are no longer under the constraints of the law which served only to stir up sin to greater rebellion, and on the other hand, because the grace of God's mercy in Christ works to realise love in the life of each believer through the indwelling-compelling of the Spirit of Christ. The nomists "who raise the objection of verse 1, fear that where God's law is put aside... and grace alone is emphasised, the result will be a lapse into sin; but the very opposite is true - sin is no longer the master. For grace has meant that Christians are as dead men raised to life and only goodness, not evil, can be associated with the new life", Best.


vi] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

Text - 6:1

Those who are righteous in Christ are raised to new life in him, v1-14:

i] The nomists have proposed that submission to the Law is essential in the Christian life to restrain sin and thus progress holiness for the appropriation of God's promised blessings, as against Paul who has argued that, consequent on justification, a believer is holy in union with Christ, and thus with full access to the promised covenant blessings, and this by God's grace through faith (Christ's faith / faithfulness and our faith response). The nomists have argued that if Paul's proposition was correct, then believers might as well continue to live in sin apart from the law since divine grace flows freely, irrespective of the worth of one's life. In fact, the more sinful we are the more God's grace is active in forgiveness. Paul assesses their argument as illogical rubbish and will go on to rebut it.

oun "[what shall we say], then?" - [what], therefore, [will we say]? Inferential / drawing a logical conclusion; given that divine grace in Christ leads to life in all its fullness apart from works of the law, "what inference are we to draw from all this", Barclay.

epimenwmen (epimenw) pres. subj. "shall we go on" - shall we continue. Deliberative subjunctive. "Are we - the suggestion is yours - to keep on sinning so that there may be more and more grace?", Barclay.

th/ aJmartia (a) "sinning" - in sin. The dative is local, sphere; "shall we continue in the sphere of sin?'

iJna + subj. "so that" - that. Introducing a final clause expressing purpose; "in order that grace may abound."

pleonash/ (pleonazw) aor. subj. "may increase" - [grace] may increase, abound. To "increase", in quantitative terms, is probably what Paul means. The false proposition is: more sin = more grace, therefore, sin is good because it prompts more grace from God. So runs the argument of the nomists in attempting to rubbish Paul's doctrine of justification ("my gospel").


ii] Paul answers the nomists' false logic, v2-11. Divine grace does indeed flow freely, but such does not promote lawless living. A believer is identified with Christ in his death and resurrection. Our old life of sin is hid with Christ in his death such that "we might no longer be enslaved to sin", v2-7, and our new life is hid with Christ in his resurrection such that, through the Spirit, we might "walk in newness of life", v8-10. In summary then: Christ has died, Christ is risen, therefore we must consider ourselves no longer slaves to sin, but alive to God, v11.

"Rubbish", says Paul; a believer dead to sin doesn't live in sin.

mh genoito "By no means" - may it never be. Emphatic negative. "Certainly not", TEV.

th/ aJmartia/ (a) dat. "[died] to sin" - [we who died] to sin. The dative possibly expresses reference / respect, "with respect to / with reference to, sin", but other possibilities include: local, "in sin", in the sphere of, "died to the realm of sin"; dative of interest, disadvantage, "died in relation to sin", or advantage, "for our sins." "We who are of such a nature", Moo. "We who died to sin."

pwV "how" - how. Interrogative particle.

zhsomen (zaw) fut. ind. act. "can we live" - will we live. The future tense serves as a deliberative subjunctive. Although a future tense supports the suggestion that "live" refers to living in eternity perfectly free from sin, it is better to follow the NIV etc. and see the living as a present reality, certainly free from the curse (legal sense), but particularly in this context, free from the power (moral sense, although always imperfectly) of sin.

en + dat. "in" - in [it still]. Local, expressing sphere, in the sphere of sin, so Jewett, or possibly standard, so Harvey.


A believer, by grace through faith, is identified with Christ's death and resurrection; the old sinful life is dead and is replace by a new life of right living, v3-4.

agnoite (agnoew) "don't you know" - [or] are you ignorant. A litotes, so a positive statement works well; "you have been taught that", JB.

oJti "that" - that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what they should be / are aware of.

o{soi pro. "all of us who" - as many as. A qualitative correlative pronoun; "as many of us as." Shaped by the 1st. pers. pl. verb "were baptized", so "we all" = NIV.

ebaptisqhmen (baptizw) aor. pas. "were baptized" - were immersed. Ingressive aorist. The natural sense of the verb "to immerse" should be retained here, given that the sense "to baptise" comes with powerful ecclesiastical connotations which do not apply in this context. The word can be used literally of water baptism (immersed in water), but it is also used figuratively of immersed in suffering, immersed in the Spirit, and immersed in teaching. So, the use here does not support a sacramental idea of water regeneration; the word "baptism" simply means "immersed".

eiV + acc. "into" - into [christ jesus, were immersed] into [the death of him]. Indicating the direction of the action, or arrival at, here arrival at, the static sense of the preposition en, "in" = incorporative union, "spiritual union", Moo. So "immersed in" takes the sense "identified with" / "united with", v5. Harris argues that it comes down to being in a relationship with Christ and belonging to Christ. Of course, the phrase could be an example of Pauline short-talk, so "baptised into the benefits of Christ's death"; see Cranfield. "We were identified with Christ in his death (v3) and resurrection (v4)."


Our justification identifies us with Christ's death and resurrection. In his death we die, we die to sin; in his resurrection we live, we live to God, we begin to live a new moral life for God. Paul is using the word "baptism" in the sense of "immersed" to illustrate identification with Christ.

oun "therefore" - therefore. Drawing a logical conclusion from the statement in v3; "So, we are jointly interred with him in death", Berkeley.

sunetafhmen (sunqaptw) aor. ind. pas. "we were [therefore] buried" - we were buried together with. Ingressive aorist. Believers are buried together with Christ in that our old sinful-self dies with Christ and is put away (legally and morally - morally, as above).

autw/ dat. pro. "him" - him. Dative of direct object after a sun prefix verb "to be buried together with."

dia + gen. "through [baptism]" - through, by means of [immersion]. Instrumental / intermediate agency, expressing means; "our baptism (immersion = identification) in his death made us share his burial", Moffatt.

eiV + acc. "into" - into [death]. We were buried with Christ through our identification with his death on the cross, see v3.

iJna + subj. "in order that" - that. Possibly introducing a purpose clause, as NIV, so Cranfield, but consecutive (result) is also possible, "and as a consequence ..... our life is altogether renewed."

w{sper "just as ..... too" - as, just as [christ was raised]. Here w{sper is used with ou{twV kai, "as .........., so also ......." to form a correlative comparative construction, although Moo suggests that there is a causal sense here; "just as ...... so also may we too walk in newness of life."

ek + gen. "from [the dead]" - out of, from [dead ones]. Expressing source / origin, separation; "away from."

dia + gen. "through" - through, by means of. Instrumental, expressing means; "by the Father's glorious power", Cassirer.

thV doxhV (a) gen. "the glory" - the glory. We would assume that the Father's "power" raises Christ and so his "glorious power" is possibly what is intended. "He was raised from the dead by that splendid revelation of the Father's power", Phillips.

tou patroV (hr roV) gen. "of the Father" - of the father. The genitive is adjectival, possessive; "the Father's glory."

hJmeiV pro. "we too" - [so also] we. Emphatic by use and position, as NIV.

peripathswmen (peripatew) aor. subj. "may live" - may walk. "Walk about" in the sense of "behave"; "so we too shall conduct ourselves", Berkeley.

en kainothti (hV) "a new" - in fresh, newness. This prepositional phrase, "in newness of life", introduced by en, is adverbial, modal, expressing the manner of the "walk". "The connotation of something extraordinary", BAGD; "all things renewed."

zwhV (h) gen. "life" - of life. The genitive is adjectival, attributed; "a new life", CEV.


Paul again restates the point he is making, using the word "united with" - grafted together. Given that believers are united with Jesus in his sacrificial death on their behalf, there is a sense where believers are also united with him in his resurrection.

gar "for" - for. More reason than cause, further expanding on the explanation commenced in v3. It is really not possible for a believer to live in outright sin for having died with Christ we are raised with Christ and thus live with Christ, live the new life in and through him (via his indwelling Spirit). As already noted, a believer may / will sin, but is inclined not to sin; a believer is inclined to honour Christ, and this through his resurrection power.

ei + ind. "if" - if. Introducing a conditional clause, 1st class, where the condition is assumed to be true; "if, as is the case, ..... then ...."

gegonamen (ginomai) perf. "we have been" - we have. The perfect tense underlining a past action with ongoing results; "have become.

sumfutoi adj. "united with him" - grown together, grafted together with. A restatement of the point already made, so Paul is probably again expressing the idea of identification with Christ, of being "immersed" with Christ; "we have been united with Christ", as NIV "If we have become identified with him in his death", REB; "if we have grown into him", Moffatt.

tw/ oJmoiwmati (a atoV) dat. "like this in / in [a death] like [his]" - the likeness, image. Dative complement of the sun prefix adjective "united with"; "grafted together with the likeness / resemblance of his death." Our death is not the same as Christ's, but it "is similar to it", Calvin.

tou qanatou (oV) gen. "[his] death" - of the death [of him]. The genitive is adjectival, epexegetic, limiting "likeness" by specifying the resemblance in mind, namely, Christ's death, although Harvey suggests a genitive of comparison.

alla kai "certainly also" - but also = then also. Here alla is contrastive and the kai adjunctive, together serving to introduce the apodosis (the "then" clause) of the conditional sentence; "then also." "In the same way", TEV.

esomeqa (eimi) fut. "we will " - we will be [united with him in the likeness of the resurrection of him]. A nice example of Pauline short-talk, ie. semantic density. The syntax as above. The genitive noun "of resurrection" is obviously ablative, of comparison, so "a resurrection like his."


The consequence of dying with Christ entails a death to sin, such that the believer is no longer enslaved to sin, v6-7. A believer is, in Christ, freely released from the power of sin, not so that we can go on sinning, or even be more sinful, but rather that we might no longer live a sinful life.

touto ginwskonteV (ginomai) pres. part. "for we know" - this knowing. Attendant circumstance participle identifying action accompanying the verb "we shall [grow into]" Christ of / from / by his resurrection, or adverbial, causal, "because we know", as NIV. The pronoun touto, "this", is forward referencing. Paul appeals to mutual understanding in the point he is making; "for we are well aware", Barclay.

oJti "that" - that. Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what all believers should know, "namely that."

oJ palaioV adj. "self" - the old [man of us]. This attributive adjective limits anqrwpoV, "man, self, humanity", which is itself limited by the possessive genitive hJmwn, "of us / our." "In existence for a long time with the connotation of being antiquated or outworn", BAGD. Cranfield says that "the old man" is the whole of our fallen nature. This is the most widely accepted interpretation, yet it can be argued that it is "the law", for in fulfilling the law, Christ removes it and therefore, sin is "rendered powerless" in that there is now no law to stir it to life. In fact, both points are true; "our old self under the law."

sunestaurwqn (sustaurow) aor. pas. "was crucified with him" - was crucified together with. Constative aorist; "with Christ" is assumed.

iJna + subj. "so that" - that. Possibly introducing a purpose clause, "in order", Moffatt, but a consecutive clause expressing result, "with the result that / so that", should not be ruled out; "with the consequence that the sin-possessed body is rendered powerless."

thV aJmartiaV (a) gen. "[the body] of sin / ruled by sin" - [the body] of sin. The genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting "body", "the sin possessed body", Moffatt, but possibly attributed, "bodily sin."

katarghqh/ (katargew) aor. subj. pas. "might be done away with" - may be made of no effect, inactive, impotent / destroyed. "Rendered powerless,"

tou .... douleuein (douleuw) pres. inf. "that we should [no longer] be slaves" - that [no longer we] to serve. The genitive articular infinitive usually forms a purpose clause, "in order that", but sometimes consecutive expressing result, particularly here if viewed as expressing the result of the preceding purpose clause, "with the result that we are no longer in bondage to sin." This particular construction can sometimes form a noun clause, here possibly epexegetic. The accusative subject of the infinitive is hJmaV, "we".

th/ aJmartia (a) dat. "to sin" - sin. The dative is possibly instrumental, expressing means, "that we be no longer enslaved by sin, although the verb "to serve as a slave" will normally take a dative direct object, "enslaved to sin." "That we should no longer be slaves of sin", CEV, Barclay, ....


gar "because" - for. Introducing a causal clause explaining why we are no longer enslaved to sin, namely, because "our escape from sin is effected by our own death to sin", Lenski. Bracketed by Moffatt.

oJ .. apoqanwn (apoqnhskw) aor. part. "anyone who has died" - the one having died. The participle serves as a substantive. Not physically died, but died in Christ, ie., identified with Christ in his death.

dedikaiwtai (dikaiow) perf. pas. "has been freed" - has been justified = declared / made righteous. Divine / theological passive. To make his point Paul chooses a forensic word expressing the idea of acquittal. A slave who has died is set free from his legal obligations of service, he is acquitted of his servitude. Again commentators argue over whether Paul has in mind a moral, or a forensic separation from sin. Has Paul in mind our being freed from "the power of sin", Phillips, a freedom which allows us to live free from sin's control (albeit imperfectly), "has been set free", so Moo, or "the [legal] claims of sin", Moffatt, in the terms of a judicial judgment that frees us from the guilt of sin, "absolved from sin", Williams, NAB? As already noted, both ideas are true and may be present, but given the context "set free from the power of sin" is probably in mind.

apo + gen. "from" - from [sin]. Expressing separation; "away from."


The consequence of rising with Christ involves a life lived to God. Christ is alive, never to die again, and "the life he lives, he lives to God." A believer, identified with Christ in his resurrection, alive with him, naturally seeks to live in a way that honours God, v8-10.

de "now" - but/and. Transitional; indicating the next step in the argument; "now ....."

ei + ind. "if" - if. Introducing a conditional clause, 1st class, where the proposed condition is assumed to be true, "if, as is the case, ... then ..." "We believe that as [since] we have died with Christ [then] we shall also live with him", Moffatt.

sun + dat. "[we died] with" - [we died] with [christ]. Expressing association.

oJti "that" - [we believe] that. Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what Paul + ("we") believe. Often "we" means Paul and the apostolic team, even "we Jews", but here it is most likely "we believers."

kai "also" - and. Adjunctive, as NIV.

sunzhsomen autw/ "we will [also] live with him" - we will live together with him. The dative personal pronoun autw/ serves as a dative of direct object after a sun prefix verb "to live with." The sense of "live with" is probably "live in union with Christ." As for the future tense, "we will live", it is generally felt that the life lived is now (the renewed life-style of a believer indwelt by the risen Christ), but that it comes with a future realization. None-the-less, it is possibly that Paul has now moved his view from the present to the future. Moo is inclined to an eschatological interpretation, given that if a present sense was Paul's intention he wouldn't have used the future tense following the word "believe"; so also Schreiner, "a genuine future", Harvey.


eidoteV (oida) perf. part. "for we know" - knowing. The participle is adverbial, causal, "because we know", introducing a causal clause explaining why we believe that those united to Christ are freed from sin, v8.

oJti "that" - that. Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what "we know."

egerqeiV (egeirw) aor. pas. part. "since [Christ] was raised" - [christ] having been raised. The participle is adverbial, probably causal, as NIV, but possibly temporal, "after Christ was raised", Jowett; we can live eternally with Christ "because" "the resurrected Christ is never again to die", Barclay.

ek + gen. "from" - from [dead ones]. Expressing separation "away from".

ouketi "[he] cannot [die again]" - [he] no more, no longer [dies]. Death did once strike at Jesus, but never again.

kurieuei (kurieuw) pres. "has mastery over" - [death] lords it over, rules over, dominates. "It is Jesus Christ who is Lord, not death", Morris.

autou gen. pro. "him" - of him [no more]. A genitive of direct object after the verb "to rule over."


Since we are identified with Christ in his resurrection, alive with him, we too will live to God. Paul will later explain that it is through the power of the indwelling Spirit of Christ that a believer possesses the potential to live for God rather than self. The aspect of the main verbs should be noted. Christ "died", punctiliar aorist, a death "once for all" / not to be repeated; Christ "lives", durative present / he lives forever.

gar "-" - for. Introducing a causal clause explaining why death has no mastery over Jesus. "For in the death he died, he died once and for all to sin; in the life he lives he lives continuously to God", Barclay.

o] neut. rel. pro. "the death" - that, which [he died]. The two neuter relative pronouns are best understood as referring to the totality of Christ's death; all that it involves. The problem with the supposed ellipsis here is that "death" is not a neuter noun, although often a neuter pronoun is used instead of a substantive, cf., BDF #154. Possibly, "whereas he died .... whereas he lives", Moule.

th/ aJmartia/ (a) dat. "to sin" - [he died] to sin [once]. As in v2, the syntactical function of the dative is unclear. Christ's relation to sin is undefined in v10 , although the context defines it in terms of dying for our sins, which act was a "once for all" act - a unique, singular, definitive act. So, probably a dative of interest, "for our sin", or at least reference; "in relation to sin", Cranfield, "with respect to sin", Morris.

tw/ qew/ (oV) "to God" - [but/and that he lives, he lives] to god. The dative is again unclear. Dative of interest, advantage, "for God", is certainly possible, such that Jesus lives a life "singularly devoted to God", Morris. Yet, reference / respect removes the sense that Jesus lives to God's advantage, a somewhat strange notion.


Paul now encapsulates his argument with an exhortation. Instead of focusing on the Law, a believer needs to identify with Christ's death and resurrection.

ouJtwV "in the same way" - thus, so / in this way. Although usually expressing manner, here probably drawing a conclusion from what precedes. The exhortation should be underlined; "so you must regard yourselves too as dead to sin", Barclay.

kai "-" - and. Adjunctive; "also".

uJmeiV pro. "-" - you. Emphatic by use; "so also you must consider yourselves dead."

logizesqe (logizomai) pres. mid. imp. "count" - consider, reckon [yourselves]. The present tense is probably gnomic (expressing a principle), rather than expressing continued action, while the middle voice is redundant, given the support of "yourselves". The verb may be read as indicative, so Jewett, but usually viewed as imperative, so Cranfield, ..... "So you must recognize that you too are dead to sin."

einai (eimi) inf. "-" - to be. The infinitive, a variant reading, servers to form a dependent statement of perception expressing what should be considered.

men ...... de ..... "...... but ....." - Adversative comparative construction; "you must consider yourselves, on the one hand, dead to sin, but on the other hand, alive to God."

th/ aJmartia/ (a) dat. "[dead] to sin" - [a person dead] to sin. The dative is again probably adverbial, of reference / respect; "dead with respect to the power of sin." Because of our relationship with Jesus Christ the curse of sin that infested us is dead and buried with Christ. Therefore, we should not let sin rule in our lives, rather we should serve God using all our natural capacities as weapons to do his will "for sin will have no dominion over you." Sin's death sets us free to live for God. This doesn't mean that a Christian will never again sin. Jesus' death on the cross enables God to re-establish his rightful control over our lives in and through the ministry of the Holy Spirit. Thus, in the power of the indwelling Spirit of Christ, we begin to live as God would have us live.

zwntaV (zaw) pres. part. "alive" - [but a person] living. The participle is usually treated as adjectival, attributive, limiting an assumed "person", so "a person who is alive to God."

tw/ qew/ (oV) dat. "to God" - to god. The dative as above, of reference / respect.

en + dat. "in [Christ]" - in [christ jesus]. Expressing space / sphere, usually understood in the sense of incorporative union - united to / identified with Christ; "in union with Christ Jesus", TEV. Other possibilities exist: causal, "because of Christ", Harris; referring to action in Christ's name; receiving divine blessing in / through Christ. The phrase "in Christ" is used by Paul some 160 times. This is the first use in Romans.


iii] Paul now, on the basis of the new life possessed by all believers in union with Christ, encourages his readers to be what they are. Instead of living in wickedness, let us put our lives to the disposal of God - let us "walk in newness of life", v12-13.

oun "therefore" - therefore. Inferential / drawing a logical conclusion; "having recognized this truth therefore (v11), don't let ....."

mh basileuetw (basileuw) pres. imp. "do not let [sin] reign" - let not [sin] rule, have mastery. The present tense is durative, so possibly "continue to reign", although the aspect of an imperative is often indefinite. The present tense may serve to generalize a command, whereas the aorist may make it more specific. "Don't let sin rule your body", CEV; "you must not be controlled by sin", TH.

en + dat. "in" - in [the mortal body of you]. Locative, space, possibly "over your mortal bodies", Moffatt. "Body" is used here in the sense of the self as it acts in the realm of this age, an age corrupted by sin and passing away; "don't let sin rule you", CEV. The problem a believer faces is that we are part of the old age of sin and death, as well as the new eternal age. So, while we live in this body we should strive to resist its old ways.

eiV to + inf. "so that" - to, into the [to listen to, take note of, obey]. The preposition eiV with the articular infinitive is usually taken to introduce a consecutive clause expressing result, "with the result that", or hypothetical result, "so that"; "in making you give way to your lusts", Phillips.

epiqumiaiV (a) dat. "[its] evil desires" - desires, lusts [of it]. Dative of direct object after the verb "to obey." "Lusts / passions" is possible, given the reference to "the mortal body", but this is a narrowly sexual translation. Assuming that the "sin" referred to concerns ethical behaviour, then it probably concerns Godly living in general. So, its "appetites", Cassirer


Note the run of the argument so far: an indicative followed by an imperative - our old sinful self is dead in Christ, which fact we should recognize and live out, ie., be what we are.

mhde "[do] not" - neither. From v12, "do not let sin reign ........ neither ......", Negated coordinate construction.

paristanete (paristhmi) pres. imp. act. "do [not] offer" - present, put at the disposal of. Often used of offering a sacrifice, here the offering of obedience. See v16 where the word is aor. ind. act. Here, the negated present tense expresses the cessation of an action. "You must no longer put any part of it (the body) to sin's disposal", REB.

ta melh "parts (of your) body / any part [of yourself]" - the limbs, body parts, members [of you]. Accusative direct object of the verb "to present." Here referring to the parts of the body in general, "bodily organs" (hands, mouth, mind ......); "the various parts of your body", Barclay. "Body" as above; "the self as a person engaged in activity", Best.

th/ aJmartia/ (a) dat. "to sin" - to sin. Dative of indirect object.

oJpla (on) "as instruments" - as weapons, tools, instruments. Accusative complement of the direct object "body parts", standing in a double accusative construction and asserting a fact about the object "body parts." "As implements for doing wrong", NEB.

adikiaV (a) gen. "of wickedness" - of unrighteousness. Possibly an objective genitive; "weapons for the purpose of unrighteousness", Moo, so also Cranfield, but adjectival, attributive, limiting "instruments" is possible; "unrighteous instruments".

alla "but rather" - but. Adversative standing in a counterpoint construction; "not ........, but ....."

parasthsate (paristhmi) aor. imp. "offer" - present. The change to an aorist tense may say something about the action, for example, a singular action, its commencement (ingressive), or better its totality, "wholehearted and total commitment", Morris, but often an aorist imperative serves to express the immediacy of the command without reference to aspect (the duration of the action). Probably the action is similar to the present tense of "offer"; "you must no longer hand over your life to sinful impulses, but rather go on to hand it over to the divine will."

tw/ qew/ (oV) dat. " to God" - [yourselves] to god. Dative of indirect object / interest, advantage; "in God's service", Moo.

wJsei "as" - as, like. Serving as a comparative particle; wJV + ei = "as if", although in this context it has a causal edge, "since you are."

zwntaV (zaw) pres. part. "those who have been [brought from death] to life" - the ones living [from / out of death]. The participle serves as a substantive, but possibly adjectival, "alive", cf., v11.

kai "and" - and present. Coordinative.

ta melh (oV) "every part of [yourselves]" - the bodily members [of you as tools]. Accusative direct object of the verb "to present" with "tools" serving as its accusative complement; as above.

dikaiosunhV (h) gen. "of righteousness" - of justice, righteousness [to god]. Here in the sense of "right-doing", Williams, and not in the sense of the righteousness which is out of faith. Possibly an objective genitive; "for righteousness", NJB; "instruments which He may use to do righteous deeds", Bruce, but again, as above, possibly adjectival, attributive.


iv] The argument in summary, v14. Dead to sin / no longer under Law; alive in Christ / now under grace. A believer is quite able to live no longer under the dominion of sin because we "are not under law, but under grace." Whereas the law prompts rebellion, the gift of Christ's indwelling Spirit prompts love.

gar "for" - because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why we can give ourselves to right-doing.

ou kurieusei (kurieuw) fut. + gen. "shall not be [your] master" - [sin] shall not lord it over, rule over, dominate [you]. Some take the future as imperatival, eg., Moffatt, but it is surely a statement of fact; "for sin will no longer hold sway over your life", Barclay.

gar "because" - because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why sin no longer holds sway over our lives.

ou "not" - [you are] not. With alla, "but", forming a counterpoint construction; "not ....., but ......"

uJpo + acc. "under" - under [law but] under [grace]. Expressing subordination; "under the rule of." A believer is able to get into right-doing, albeit imperfectly, because they are no longer "under" / subject to God's law, which law exposes sin, making it more sinful, alla, "but" are now "under" / subject to God's grace, namely his kindness in writing the law on the heart of his children and shaping it within through the indwelling-compelling of the Spirit of Christ. Of course, numerous other interpretations have been offered over time, eg., the counterpoint is between the era of law and the era of grace, the old covenant and the new. "Because you are no longer subject to God's law, but rather his grace."


Romans Introduction.



[Pumpkin Cottage]