1. The early church in Jerusalem, 1:1-5:42

v] Peter's sermon on the day of Pentecost, 2:14-35

b) The sermon proper - Christ, his resurrection, and the gift of the Spirit


After the pentecostal experience of tongue-speaking, Peter sets out to preach to the gathered crowd. First, he answers the charge of drunkenness and then gives witness to Jesus' resurrection, linking this to the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.


The outpouring of the Spirit witnesses to the fact that Jesus Christ, the crucified one, is risen from the dead and is now Lord. To stand approved under his reign it is necessary to repent for the forgiveness of sins. By so doing, the believing person will be enlivened by the gift of the Holy Spirit.


i] Context: See 1:1-11.


ii] Structure: This passage, Christ, his resurrection and the gift of the Spirit, presents as follows:

Peter's Pentecost sermon, v14-39:

Introduction, v14-21;

The charge of drunkenness. Text Joel 2:28-32.

Sermon Proper, v22-36:

Christ is both Lord and Messiah. Text Psalm 110:1:

Proposition, v22-24;

Scriptural support, v25-28;

Argument #1, v29-32;

Argument #2, v33-35;

Conclusion, v36.

Response, v37-39:

"Repent and be baptized ... for the forgiveness of sins .... and you will receive he gift of the Holy Spirit."

Appendix , v40-41.


iii] Interpretation:

There are two major parts to Peter's sermon: In v14-21 Peter explains to the gathered crowd the tongue speaking phenomenon with reference to Old Testament prophecy. Then, in v22-39, Peter proclaims the gospel (kerygma), dealing with the resurrection and the consequent Lordship of Christ in v22-32, the resultant outpouring of the Spirit in v33-35, restating again the proposition that Jesus is both Christ / messiah and Lord in v36, concluding with a call for repentance in v37-39.


Peterson argues that Peter's sermon serves three functions in Luke's account of the gospel:

• It serves to explain the pentecostal event and answer the question of the bystanders. Joel's prophecy serves as the basis of this explanation, making the point that "this would happen as an eschatological event before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord";

• The sermon serves as an opportunity "to explain the significance of Jesus in the plan of God for his people" and to show that "God is the hidden actor behind Jesus' mighty works, his death, his resurrection, his exaltation and giving of the Spirit, and his enthronement as Lord and Christ";

• Finally, the sermon serves as a model of how the gospel is preached, here to Jews, and how its preaching changes lives. "The speech not only interprets what has happened; it causes something to happen. The audience makes a shattering discovery and is moved to repentance in large numbers", Tannehill.


The gospel in Acts: Dodd in The Apostolic Preaching and its Development, notes six elements in the gospel sermons found in Acts, although not all six elements are found in each sermon:

• The age of fulfillment has dawned;

• This has taken place through the life, death and resurrection of Jesus;

• By virtue of the resurrection, Jesus has been exalted at the right hand of God, as messianic head of the new Israel;

• The Holy Spirit in the church is the sign of Christ's present power and glory;

• The messianic age will shortly reach its consummation in the return of Christ;

• A concluding appeal for repentance. This appeal comes with the offer of forgiveness and the gift of the Holy Spirit, and the promise of salvation to those who enter the elect community.


The Gospel: As is typical of New Testament preaching, the gospel is presented in three parts: "The time is fulfilled"; "the kingdom of God is at hand"; "repent and believe the gospel":

The bulk of the gospel message, particularly when delivered to a Jewish audience, focuses on the first part, the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy in the life, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus Christ. The message proclaims Jesus as the long awaited messiah, the one who is to come and gather a people, a nation, a new Israel, to the living God.

The second part focuses on the inevitable consequence of Christ's completed work, namely, the kingdom is now, salvation is now. This is often understated as this consequence is plainly known (certainly to a Jew).

The third part focuses on the necessary response to the gospel message, namely, turning to Christ and relying on his completed work on our behalf. Depending on the circumstances, all parts are not necessarily present in every gospel presentation.


Peter's use of Psalm 110:1, v34-35. Peter argues that David cannot be the person referred to in the Psalm as he has not ascended into heaven, but rather is still in his grave, the site of which is commonly known. Only Jesus, a descendent of David, has risen from the dead and therefore the Psalm obviously refers to him. The point Peter draws from the Psalm is clear enough: "the resurrection indicates Jesus' position at the Father's right hand, as the one who is seated at God's side. From this place of honor and unique glory, Jesus mediates the blessing of the Spirit and salvation in accord with the promise of God's plan. This reveals who Jesus is ..... tightly associating Jesus with God's unique glory", Bock.


What Christology applies to Luke's use of the word "Lord"? Christ is both kurion kai criston, "Lord and Christ / Messiah", v36. It seems likely that 2:21 is the first time in Acts when a text applying to God may also be applied to Jesus, "anyone who calls on the name of the Lord (Jesus) will be saved." This assumes, of course, that the one who pours out "my Spirit" is Jesus, cf., v18. This issue has never been resolved in Christendom with the Western church holding that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, and the Eastern church arguing that the Spirit proceeds from the Father alone. Commentators are divided on whether Luke is using the title "Lord" for Jesus in the same sense as it is used of Yahweh. Certainly, in the present context, Jesus is Lord "over salvation and the distribution of salvation's benefits", Bock. If Luke is not confirming the divinity of Jesus, then he may be using the word Lord in the sense of the exalted one, the messiah who is "exalted to the right hand of God", so Dunn. As "Christ" is the title understood by Jews to refer to the messiah and commonly used that way by Luke for Jews, so "Lord" may well be commonly used by Luke as a messianic title suitable for Gentiles. If this is the case then both titles refer to Jesus as the foretold cosmic messiah who, on behalf of God's new people, receives the authority to reign over an eternal heavenly kingdom.


iv] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

Text - 2:22

Peter's Pentecost sermon, v22-36: i] Peter lays down the central point of his sermon, proclaiming that Jesus is Lord and Messiah, v22-24. Jesus' "mighty works", or more rightly, "powerful signs of the kingdom", demonstrate the "finger of God" imposing them upon the people of Israel, and thus proclaiming the inevitable truth that "the kingdom of God has come upon you", Lk.11:20. Indeed, "God has visited his people", Lk.7:16. Yet, God's chosen-one was handed over to "wicked men", ie. those apart from the Law and covenants - pagan Rome. So, the messiah suffered, as it was foreordained he would. Yet, a higher court overturned the court of pagan Rome and reversed its death-sentence; it is not possible for death to hold the messiah. As it was ordained that messiah would suffer, so it was ordained that he would enter glory. This he did by rising from the dead.

andreV (anhr) "men [of Israel] / fellow [Israelites"" - men [Israelites]. "My fellow Jews", ...

andra (hr droV) "a man" - Standing in apposition to "Jesus of Nazareth".

apodedeigmenon (apodeiknumi) perf. part. "accredited" - having been designated, appointed, exhibited, commended, attested, authenticated. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting man. As can be seen, the word can convey a number of meanings. Bruce opts of "attested", Barrett for "appointed", or the less technical meaning of "a man marked out", "designated" ("approved", Calvin). "Authenticated", "proved", Phillips/CEV.., is certainly not acceptable, as if Christ's divine appointment needs to be proved to anyone.

apo + gen. "by [God]" - Taken to express agency, "by", although we would expect uJpo.

dunamesi (iV ewV) dat. "by miracles" - by / with miracles, mighty works. The dative is instrumental. Christ was appointed/designated with accompanying signs. Note that in the New Testament this word is always used with "signs" - signs and wonders.

oi|V dat. pro. "which [God did]" - Dative by attraction.

di (dia) + gen. "through [him]" - through, by means of. Expressing agency.


touton pro. "this man" - this, this one. Resumptive = "Jesus of Nazareth", v22.

ekdoton adj. "was handed over to you" - delivered up, given up. Reshaped as a verb by the NIV with the object "to you" assumed; "Betrayed", Williams.

wJrismenh/ (oJrizw) perf. part. "[by God's] set [purpose and foreknowledge]" - by the having been determined, set boundary of [purpose and foreknowledge of God]. The dative is taken as instrumental by the NIV, although see Wallace for dative of rule; "in conformity with", p157; "this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God", ESV. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting the noun boulh/ "purpose / council [of God]." There is no personal failure in the betrayal and execution of Jesus because "God himself foresaw and planned the whole", Barrett. "Betrayed in the predestined course of God's deliberate purpose", Moffatt.

tou qeou "God's" - of God. The genitive is adjectival, possessive / verbal, subjective.

dia + gen. "with the help of [wicked men]" - through, by means of [hand of lawless]. Instrument /agent. An example of the divine will being realized through the freely determined actions of corrupt people who are then held accountable for their actions. A classic example of this may be found in the Babylonian empire's invasion of Judea, an invasion which served as an instrument of God's judgment upon the people of Israel, but which none-the-less placed Babylon under divine judgment for its actions.

prosphxanteV (prosphgnumi) aor. part. "by nailing him to the cross" - having crucified. The participle is adverbial, probably instrumental expressing means, "by means of", as NIV, but possibly modal, expressing the manner of the killing. "You nailed up [and murdered]", Phillips.


lusaV (luw) aor. part. "freeing" - having loosed, released. The participle is adverbial, modal, expressing the manner in with the action of being raised is accomplished, but possibly temporal, "when he freed him ...." "Having destroyed the bitter pains of death."

taV wdinaV (in inoV) "the agony [of death]" - birth pains [of death]. The word is often used of birthing pains and figuratively of the suffering associated with the coming (birthing) of the messianic age. Jesus is "loosed" from these "pangs" in his resurrection. This idea is a bit cumbersome. Barrett's view that the intended meaning is "cords/bindings of death" is to be preferred, cf. Psalm 17:6, 114:3, where the LXX has read "pangs" for the MT "cords of death/Sheol". "God set him free from death", CEV.

kaqoti conj. "because" - for, because. Causal conjunction. Jesus "is the one for whom it was impossible that the resurrection from the death should not take place", Barth.

krateisqai (kratew) pres. pas. inf. "to keep" - to be grasped, taken possession of, held. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verbal phrase "it was not possible".

auton acc. pro. "-" - him. Serving as the accusative subject of the infinitive; "it was not possible for him to be held by it (death)"

uJp (uJpo) + gen. "-" - Expressing agency; "it was not possible to be held by it", ESV.


ii] Peter now confirms his claims through the testimony of scripture, v25-28. Peter uses this Psalm of David as a text in support of Jesus' fulfillment of the messiah's promised deliverance from death. Psalm 16:8-11, a psalm of David, is usually treated as messianic. The theme of protection from death is interpreted by Peter as deliverance from death. The LXX certainly enables this interpretation, although the MT does not. This, of course, raises interesting questions as to the authority of scripture.

proorwmhn (prooraw) imperf. "I saw" - "I was foreseeing / saw before time" .... but more likely, "have always before my eyes." Imperfect indicating an ongoing seeing and here with the force of the perfect tense. "I have ever fixed my eyes upon the Lord", Weymouth.

dia pantoV "always" - through all. Idiomatic = "always", as NIV.

oJti "because" - that. Here causal, as NIV.

ek "at [my right hand]" - An idomatic locative use of this preposition prompted by the partitive sense "of my right hand" = "at my right hand."

iJna mh + subj. "I will not [be shaken]" - that I may not be shaken. Technically this construction forms a dependent statement, indirect speech, expressing a statement of faith prompted by the knowledge that the Lord is at his right hand, as NIV. None-the-less, Barrett suggests that Luke would have understood the construction in its usual Greek sense as forming a purpose clause; "God stands at my right hand (as armed defender, or perhaps as advocate) in order that I may not be moved (by my enemies)."


dia touto "therefore" - because of this. A common phrase expressing cause / reason, here explanatory.

hgalliasato (agalliaomai) aor. "[my tongue] rejoices" - exalted, rejoices exceedingly. "My words will be joyful", CEV.

eti de kai "also" - yet but also, and in addition. "Besides/moreover".

hJ sarx mou "my body" - the flesh of me. The TEV gets in a tangle trying to express the notion of the mortality of the "flesh" as against the hope of immortality, summed up in the phrase "rest assured in hope." The CEV cuts through it all with "I will live in hope." The sense is of the mortal body resting in the grave secure in the hope of the resurrection, "my body also will rest in hope", Weymouth.

kataskhnwsei (kataskhnow) fut. "will live" - will live, dwell. "My life was passed in hope", Barclay.

ep (epi) + dat. "in [hope]" - Possibly causal, "on the basis of / because of."


oJti "because" - that. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the psalmist rests in hope; "because ......"

ouk egkataleiyeiV (egkataleipw) fut. "you will not abandon" - forsake, desert, leave behind.

thn yuchn (h) "-" - the soul [of me]. The very self, the living being of myself.

eiV aJdhn (hV ou) "the grave" - into destruction. This prepositional phrase refers to the place or abode of the dead, including both the righteous and the unrighteous, equivalent to the Hebrew term Sheol*. "Thou wilt not leave me in the grave forsaken", Weymouth.

ton oJsion adj. "[your] Holy One" - the holy one [of you]. This accusative substantival phrase functions as the subject of the infinitive "to see." "Thy godly one", "devoted servant", TEV. Note how the TEV tries to bring out the two ideas of devotion and dedication carried in this descriptive of the King Messiah.

idein (oJraw) aor. inf. "to see" - The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "will give" = "will allow to see."


moi dat. pro. "[made known] to me" - Dative of indirect object.

zwhV (h) gen. "[the paths] of life" - The genitive is adjectival, of destination; "the paths that lead to life." Interestingly, the Hebrew text has "path" singular, the path to life through obedience. Why does Luke have "paths"? Given the context, Luke is speaking about the way out of the grave into a resurrected life. Was there more than one way for the messiah? meta + gen. "with [joy]" - with.

eufrosuhnV (h) gen. "[you fill me] with joy" - [you fill me] of joy. The genitive is adjectival, of content; "you fill me full of joy."

meta + gen. "in your presence" - of the face of you. Expressing accompaniment / association; "with your presence", ESV.


iii] Peter justifies the application of the Psalm to Jesus, v29-32. Peter notes that David saw decay, his tomb being near Siloam for all to see. One of his descendants must take the throne of God's eternal kingdom, and obviously that descendent is Jesus, the one whose body did not suffer decay (for God raised him up). To this, Peter and the other disciples are witnesses. So, Peter's point is that Davids words are not directed to himself, but are prophetically addressed to a greater descendent.

andreV adelfoi "Brothers" - men, brothers. The members of the congregation are "brothers" in that they are fellow Jews, "fellow Israelites", Williams.

exon (exestin) pres. part. "I can" - it is permitted, right. The participle may be treated as a nominative absolute, or possibly forming a periphrastic construction with the verb to-be assumed, as NIV; "it is possible / appropriate", Cully. The REB clarifies with a negation, "nobody can deny that ...." Peter makes the point that since David's tomb is nearby, then obviously the Psalm wasn't addressing him, since he has seen corruption. This is stirring the pot somewhat, given that tradition has it that David was one of the seven immortals.

epein (eipon) aor. inf. "tell" - to speak. The infinitive may be classified as complementary, or serving to form an object clause / dependent statement of perception, expressing what is thought to be appropriate.

proV + acc. "you" - toward [you]. Spacial.

meta + gen. "-" - with [boldness]. Adverbial, expressing manner, "confidently", as NIV; "with no fear of contradiction", Barclay.

peri + gen. "-" - about [the patriarch David]. Expressing reference, respect; "with respect to ...."

oJti "that [the patriarch David]" - that. Here introducing a dependent statement, indirect speech, expressing what Peter is confidently able to say about David, namely "that he was buried and that his grave is in our midst to this very day", Cassirer.

kai "-" - also [he died]. Adjunctive.

en + dat. "with [us]" - Expressing association / accompaniment; "with us."

acri + gen. "to [this day]" - until [this day]. Temporal; "his grave is in our midst to this very day", Cassirer.


oun "but" - therefore. Drawing a logical conclusion: "[David] therefore, being a prophet and having known ......., (v31) having foreseen, he spoke about the resurrection of Jesus Christ that (by making the point that) he was neither abandoned to destruction nor [that] his body saw corruption." Peter is alluding to Psalm 132:11.

uJparcwn (uJparcw) pres. part. "he was [a prophet]" - being. The participle may form a temporal clause, "while he was alive he was a prophet", Phillips, possibly causal, "because he was a prophet", although properly attendant circumstance expressing action accompanying the main verb "he spoke", v31.

eidwV (oida) perf. part. "knew" - having known. The participle as above.

oJti "that" - Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what David knew.

wmosen (omnuw) aor. "had promised" - swore. This verb is normally followed by an infinitive introducing an object clause, epexegetic / dependent statement, here the infinitive kaqisai, "to sit"; "swore .... that he would set ....."

autw/ dat. pro. "him" - to him. Dative of indirect object.

o{rkw/ (oV) dat. "on oath" - The dative is possibly instrumental, expressing means; "by means of an oath."

kaqisai (kaqizw) aor. inf. "he would place" - to cause to sit. See above; "install/appoint".

ek + gen. "[one of his descendants]" - from [the fruit of the loins of him]. Expressing source / origin. Referring to a Davidic messiah who will sit on David's throne.


proidwn (proeidon) aor. part. "seeing what was ahead" - having foreseen. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "he spoke." Best translated as a simple secondary verb, "he knew what would happen (ie. the resurrection of the messiah) and so he told us ..."

peri + gen. "of [the resurrection]" - concerning, about. Expressing reference / respect; "about / concerning the resurrection".

tou Cristou (oV) gen. "of Christ" - The genitive may be classified as adjectival, possessive, or verbal, subjective.

oJti "that" - Introducing a dependent statement of indirect speech expressing the content of the prophecy, what "he told us."

oute ..... oute "not ..... nor" - neither .... nor. Negated comparative construction. Neither would the messiah's soul be lost, nor would his body decompose in the grave.


anesthsen (anisthmi) aor. "[God] has raised ...... to life" - [God] raised up.

touton pro. "this [Jesus]" - Resumptive and emphatic by position, "Jesus is the man we are speaking of", Cassirer.

ouJ gen. "-" - This relative pronoun my be masculine, thus referring to Jesus "of whom we are all witnesses", or neuter, referring to the resurrection of Jesus, "of which [fact] we are all witnesses." The latter is preferred. The genitive is probably adverbial, reference / respect; "with respect to which ..."

hJmeiV "we [are all witness of the fact]" - we [all are witnesses]. Emphatic by use and position.


iv] Answering the obvious question, "where is Jesus now?", Peter speaks of Jesus' ascension and exaltation to the right hand of God, and his receiving and bestowal of the Spirit's gifting, v33-35. This Christ has now ascended on high to take his throne at the right hand of God, receiving from the Father the right and power to pour out the Spirit on the children of God. In this way he fulfills the words of Psalm 110:1. He serves as the Davidic king who sits at the right hand of God. He is the exalted messiah, ruler over heaven and earth. This fact is evidenced in the pentecostal experience of ecstatic prophecy (tongue speaking) just witnessed by the crowd.

oun "-" - therefore. Drawing a logical conclusion; "having been exalted ... and having received ..... therefore he has poured out ...." = "now that he has been exalted to the right hand of God, and now that he has received from the Father the Holy Spirit, whom he had promised, he has given this demonstration of the Spirit ....", Barclay.

uJywqeiV (uJyow) aor. pas. part. "exalted" - having been lifted up. The participle, as with lambwn, "having received", is adverbial, taken either as causal, "because ...", or temporal, "when ..."

th/ dexia/ adj. dat. "to the right hand [of God]" - by/to the right. The dative may be instrumental, "by God's authority", or locative, "to the seat of God's authority." Instrumental is best; "uplifted then, by God's right hand", Moffatt.

lambwn (lambanw) aor. part. "he has received" - having received. The participle as above. Received as a gift of exaltation, received in the sense of received the authority to give the Holy Spirit as promised in Joel.

para + gen. "from [the Father]" - Here expressing source, as NIV.

tou pneumatoV (a atoV) gen. "[the promise] of the [Holy] Spirit" - A genitive of definition; "the promise which consists of / which is the Holy Spirit."

execeen (eckew) aor. "he has poured out" - bring forth, pour out, come forth. Referring to Joel 3:1, identified in v17. Jesus has received the authority to pour out the Spirit, and has now done it.


gar "for" - Expressing cause/reason, more explanatory than causal, supportive of Peter's claim that Jesus is now exalted to God's right hand.

ou "[David did] not" - no. Davies & Allison make the point that the position of this negation implies the meaning "It was not David who ascended", rather than "David did not ascend."

anebh (anabainw) aor. "ascend" - ascended. Making the point that Jesus fulfills the promise of the Psalm in that it was not David who ascended.

tw/ kuriw/ (oV) dat. "[The Lord said] to [my] Lord" - Dative of indirect object.

ek "at [my right hand]" - out of, from. As in v25, the preposition here carries a locative sense, "at/on". Sitting at the right hand of God implies sitting in a position of authority. Only Ezekiel's Son of Man has such authority.


eJwV an + subj. "until" - Forming a temporal clause indefinite future time. Implying that Jesus' authority ends when his enemies are subdued, but it may be saying that he uses his divine authority "during the time that it is necessary" to subdue the enemy, cf. 1Cor.15:24 for a text that supports "until".

uJpopodion (on) acc. "a footstool" - Complement of the noun "enemies" which is the object of the verb "I make", lit., "I make enemies a footstool of you."

twn podwn (ouV odoV) gen. "for [your] feet" - of the feet [of you]. The genitive may be treated adjectivally, possibly possessive, or simply attributive, limiting "stool", "footstool", or adverbially, reference / respect, "a footstool with respect to feet" = "for feet."


v] Conclusion, v36: Peter finally gets to the punch line: Jesus is both Christ and Lord. He was "declared to be the Son of God with power .... by the resurrection from the dead", Rom.1:4. Not only is Jesus the Christ (ie. the long-awaited Davidic messiah), he is also Lord. The term "Lord" was often used in the sense of "Sir" - a title of respect. Yet, for an Old Testament Jew it was the "name above every name", the name of God himself - The Lord, Adonai. The reality of Jesus' status, authority and power, announces the dawning of the kingdom. The kingdom is now. It is the day when "all peoples on earth will be blessed", it is the day of "salvation". Peter's call to repent and believe the gospel follows in v37-41. So, the apostolic testimony and scriptural prophecy serving to explain the events surrounding Jesus' death and the outpouring of ecstatic prophecy which had just occurred, combine to confirm the status and significance of Jesus - he is the long-awaited messiah, and he is Lord.

oun "therefore" - Inferential; introducing the conclusion of the speech. "So therefore" (as a result) "God's resurrection and exaltation of Jesus accredits him as mankind's Lord and Israel's messiah", Longenecker.

asfalwV adv. "[be assured of this]" - assuredly, beyond a doubt. Emphasizing the truth of Peter's conclusion; what Israel may know for certain.

ginwsketw (ginwskw) pres. imp. "be assured of this" - let know. "Know" in the sense of a man "knowing" his wife, ie. something stronger than just intellectual assent; "the whole house of Israel must realize for sure", Barclay.

oJti "-" - that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception, what israel should be assured of (to know); "so then the whole house of Israel must realize for sure that .....", Barclay.

epoihsen (poiew) aor. "[God] made" - made, caused to become. "Appointed", Barrett, but possibly better "acknowledged". Given the context, the word may well mean "cause to become", in the sense of "appoint". The only problem is that Jesus was appointed as Messiah at his baptism. Barrett argues otherwise, but the messianic secret, evidenced during Jesus' life, does not mean that his appointment as messiah awaited his resurrection. We are on safer ground with Bruce who argues for "confirmed".

touton pro. "this [Jesus]" - Intensive.

uJmeiV pro. "you [crucified]" - Emphatic by position and use.

kai ... kai "both [Lord] and [Christ]" - Correlative.

kurion kai criston "Lord and Christ / Messiah" - Double accusative construction, object complement of "Jesus". As noted above, many commentators argue that "Lord" is being used here of the divine name, thus the divinity of Jesus is being confirmed. This is the name "above every name", a name applied to Jesus, Phil.2:9; and is used as a reverential title for Jehovah. This interpretation is adopted in the sample sermon. Against this view it is argued that the term "Lord" has already been used in this passage and is clearly not referring to Jehovah, cf. v25. So "Lord" may simply mean criston, "Christ", namely, the messiah.


Acts Introduction



[Pumpkin Cottage]