Identification of technical sources


Bible Translations and Paraphrases

AV. Authorized Version = The King James Version. 1611.

ASV. American Standard Version, 1901.

Barclay. A New Translation, Vol. 1 & 2, NT. William Barclay, 1969.

Berkeley. Berkeley Version of the New Testament, Gerrit Verkuyl, 1945.

Bruce, Paraphrase. The Letters of Paul, an extended paraphrase. F.F. Bruce. 1965.

Cassirer. God's New Covenant, A New Testament Translation. 1989.

CEB. Common English Bible, 2011.

CEV. The Contemporary English Version. 1995.

Goodspeed. An American Translation, NT. Edgar J. Goodspeed. 1935.

ESV. The English Standard Version, The Standard Bible Society, 2001.

HCSB. Holman Christian Standard Bible, Holman Bible Publishers, 2004.

JB. The Jerusalem Bible. 1966.

Junkins. A Fresh Parenthetical Version of the New Testament, B.E. Junkins, 2002.

Knox. The New Testament in English. Ronald A. Knox. 1944.

LB. The Living Bible, Tyndale. 1971.

LEB. Lexham English Bible. Logos, 2011.

Moffatt. A New Translation, James Moffatt. Harper and Row. 1922.

Montgomery. Centenary Translation of the New Testament in Modern English, Helen Barrett Montgomery, 1924.

NAB. New American Bible. 1970/86.

NASB. New American Standard Bible. 1973.

NCV. The Word New Century Version of the New Testament. Sweet Publishing Co. Texas, 1984.

NEB. New English Bible. 2nd. Ed. 1970.

NET. New English Translation of the Bible, Biblical Studies Press, 2005.

NJB. New Jerusalem Bible. 1985.

NKJV. New King James Version, 1982, Harper and Collins.

NIV. New International Version. Zondervan, 1985. Updated, 2005 (TNIV), and 2011 (NIV11).

NLT. New Living Translation of the Bible, 1996.

NRSV. New Revised Standard Version, 1990.

Peterson. The New Testament in Contemporary English. Navpress. 1993.

Phillips. The New Testament in Modern English, J.B. Phillips, Bles/Collins, 1960.

Pilcher. St.Paul to the Romans, Charles Venn Pilcher, 1951.

REB. Revised English Bible, Cambridge, 1989.

Rieu. The Four Gospels, A New Translation from the Greek. E.V. Rieu, Penguin. 1958.

RSV. Revised Standard Version. 1946.

RV. Revised Version. 1884.

Scholars. The Scholars Bible / Version, Polebridge Press. 2000+.

Schonfield. The Authentic New Testament, edited and translated from the Greek by Hugh J. Schonfield, London, 1962.

TCNT. Twentieth Century New Testament, 1904.

TEV. Today's English Version = The Good News Bible. 1976.

TNT. The Translator's New Testament, British and Foreign Bible Society, 1973.

TNIV. Today's New International Version, Zondervan, 2005.

Torey. The Four Gospels. A New Translation. Charles Cutler Torey. 1933.

WEB. World English Bible. Public domain translation based on ASV 1901, 2000.

Weymouth. The New Testament in Modern Speech, NT. R.F. Weymouth. 1943.

Williams. A Private Translation in the Language of the People, NT. Charles Kingsley. Williams. 1937. Moody 1955.

Wuest. The New Testament, an expanded translation, 1961.


General Abbreviations

BEB. Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, Grand Rapids, 1988.

cf. compare, confer.

DB. Dictionary of the Bible, Grant and Rawley, 1963.

eg. exempli gratia, "for example."

ET. The Expository Times.

Gk. Greek, the Greek text.

ie. id est, "that is."

JTS. The Journal of Theological Studies.

lit. literally.

LXX. Septuagint. The Greek Old Testament.

MSS. Manuscripts.

MT. Masoretic (Hebrew) text.

NT. The New Testament.

NTIQ. Novum Testamentum, International Quarterly for NT and Related studies, Netherlands.

NTS. New Testament Studies. Cambridge University Press.

OT. The Old Testament.

poss. Possibly.

RTR. Reformed Theological Review, Australia.

TDNT. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. Kittel and Friedrich. Eng. ed. Eerdmans, 1964-76.

TH. A Translators Handbook - Helps for Translators. United Bible Societies.


Greek Technical Terms:

Greek glossary


Greek Technical Sources, [Gk.].

* J.P. Louw and E. A. Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains. New York: United Bible Societies 1988/89.

BAGD. A Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature. Arndt and Gingrich, Chicago University Press. 1955.

BDAG. A Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, Revised, Danker. Chicago University Press. 2000.

BDF. Blass and Debrunner. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Trans. Funk. 1961.

Brooks & Winbery. Syntax of New Testament Greek, James Brooks and Carlton Winbery, University Press of America, 1979.

Burton. Syntax of Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek. 3rd Ed. 1898, T&T Clark.

Charmerlain. An Exegetical Grammar of the Greek New Testament. 1941.

Dana and Mantey. A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. 1944.

Doudna. The Greek of the Gospel of Mark. Society of Biblical Literature 12, 1961.

Harris. Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament. Zondervan, 2012.

Kenyon. Textual Criticism of the New Testament, Frederic Kenyon. Macmillan, 1912.

Levinsohn Acts. Textual Connections in Acts, Stephen Levinsohn, Society of Biblical Literature 31, 1987.

Levinsohn. Discourse Features of New Testament Greek, 2nd ed. Dallas: SIL, 2000.

LN. Lexical Semantics of the Greek New Testament, Louw & Nida, Society of Biblical Literature, 1992.

Metzger. A textual commentary of the Greek New Testament. United Bible Societies. 1971.

McKay. A New Syntax of the verb in New Testament Greek: an aspectual approach. Lang, NY, 1994.

Moule IB. An Idiom Book of the New Testament Greek. C.F.D. Moule. 2nd. Ed. 1959.

MHT I. A Grammar of New Testament Greek: Prolegomena, J.H. Moulton. T & T Clark, 1906.

MHT III. A Grammar of New Testament Greek: Syntax. Nigel Turner. T & T. Clark. 1963.

MM. The vocabulary of the Greek New Testament. Moulton and Milligan. London. 1930.

Nunn. A Short Syntax of New Testament Greek. H.P.V. Nunn, CUP, 1965.

Plummer DDG. Web based Daily Dose of Greek, Robert Plummer.

Porter. Verbal aspect in the Gk. NT, 1989; Idioms of the Gk. NT. 1992.

Robertson grammar. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Historical Research, A.T. Robertson, 1934.

Rogers. The New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament. Translation and revision of Fritz Rienecker's original work, 1982. Zondervan, 1998.

Runge. Discourse Grammar of the Greek New Testament, Bellingham, 2010.

Smyth. Greek Grammar, Herbert Werner Smyth, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1984.

TDNT. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Kittel, trans. G.W. Bromiley, 1964-76.

TNGEI. The New Geek-English Interlinear New Testament, Brown and Comfort, Tyndale, 1990.

Thrall Pt. Greek Particles in the New Testament, Margaret Thrall, Eerdmans, 1962.

Turner. Grammatical insights into the New Testament. T & T. Clark. 1965.

Wallace. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics. An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, Daniel Wallace, Zondervan, 1996.

Zerwick. A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament, Max Zerwick (trans. Mary Grosveror) 1981.

Zerwick #. Biblical Greek illustrated by examples, Max Zerwick (Trans. Joseph Smith), 1963.


Greek text, UBS 4th Corrected Edition, Bruce Metzger. Ref. translation, Robert Brown and Philip Comfort, Greek-English NT. Tyndale, 1990.


Greek Textual Classifications:

Western text. The Western text refers to a group of texts (Uncials, Papyri, Minuscles [scriptural quotations in other literature]) best represented by the bilingual (Greek and Latin) codex D (Bezae), and going back to the middle of the second century. Its many additions in the Gospels and Acts are often viewed as amplifications of earlier texts, but this is disputed by many.

Byzantine text. The Byzantine text refers to a large group of texts going back to the early fourth century in Syrian Antioch when different textual traditions were reworked into an agreed text. This text was accepted in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) and became the main source for the Authorized Version of the Bible, 1611.

Alexandrian text. The Alexandrian text refers to a group of texts which Westcott and Hort argued was the closest textual source to the original (Nestle's resultant text improved on that of Westcott and Hort and remains the basis of the UBS Greek New Testament, Fourth Corrected Edition, used in these notes). It was called the Alexandrian text because it was the text primarily used in Alexandria and is best represented by codex B (Vaticanus).

Caesarean text. The Caesarean text refers to a group of texts used in Egypt (eg. papyri P45) before the Alexandrian text and used by Origin in Caesarea in the early third century. This text is best represented by Codex W (Washington) and Q (Koridethianus). It is similar to the Alexandrian text, but with some of the Western text "amplifications".


General Grammatical Terms

acc. accusative

act. active

adv. adverb

adj. adjective

aor. aorist

dat. dative

fem. feminine

fut. future

gen. genitive

inf. infinitive

imp. imperative

imperf. imperfect

ind. indicative

intrans. intransitive

mas. masculine

mid. middle

neu. neuter

nom. nominative

opt. optative

part. participle

pas. passive

perf. perfect

peri. periphrastic

pl. plural

pluperf. pluperfect

PP. prepositional phrase

pres. present

prep. preposition

pro. pronoun

sing. singular

subj. subjective

subs. substantive

tran. transitive

voc. vocative


Bible Commentary Series

Abingdon. Abingdon New Testament Commentaries, Abingdon Press, Nashville, USA.

Anchor. The Anchor Bible, Doubleday, New York / Yale University Press.

BECNT. Backer Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, Baker Book House, Michigan.

Black's. Black's New Testament Commentaries, A & C Black, London / Harper's New Testament Commentaries, Harper & Rowe, San Francisco and Hendrickson, Massachusetts.

BMC. Bryn Mawr Commentaries, Bryn Mawr College, PA.

BST. The Bible Speaks Today, Inter-Varsity Press

BTCPC. Biblical Theology for Christian Proclamation Commentary, B&C - Academic.

CBC. The Cambridge Bible Commentary, Cambridge University Press, replaced.

CGTC. The Cambridge Greek Testament Commentary, Cambridge University Press.

CGTSC. The Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges, Cambridge University Press.

ChiRho. ChiRho Commentary Series, Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide, Australia (deceased)

Continental. Continental Commentary Series, Augsburg-Fortress Press.

Crossroad. New Testament Commentaries, The Crossroad Publishing Company, New York

DSB. The Daily Study Bible Series, The Saint Andrew Press, Edinburgh / The Westminster Press, Philadelphia

ECC. The Eerdmans Critical Commentary, Eerdmans Publishing Company, USA and UK.

EGGNT. The Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament, Broadman and Holman Academic, Nashville.

EGHB. The Expositors Guide to the Historical Books, Baker Book House, Michigan

EGT. The Expositors Greek Testament, Reprinted by Eerdmans.

EPSC. Evangelical Press Study Commentary - a new conservative series for the Old and New Testament, Evangelical Press USA and England.

ESVEC. The ESV Expository Commentary, Crossway.

EBC / Expositors. The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Zondervan

Epworth. Epworth Commentaries, Epworth Press, USA.

FOB. Focus on the Bible, Fearn: Christian Focus Publications

Hermeneia. A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible, Augsburgh-Fortress Press, Philadelphia

HGT. A Handbook on the Greek Text, Baylor University Press.

Horizons. The Two Horizons New Testament Commentary (THNTC), Eerdmans, Grand Rapids and Cambridge.

ICC. The International Critical Commentary, T &T Clark, Edinburgh

Interpretation. Interpretation, A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching, John Knox Press, Louisville

IVP Commentary Series. The IVP New Testament Commentaries, IVP Press USA and England.

JSOT. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament - Supplement Series, Sheffield Academic Press

LABC. Life Application Bible Commentary Series. Tyndale.

Layman's. The Layman's Bible Commentaries, SCM Press London / John Knox Press Virginia (deceased)

LS. Let's Study, Banner of Truth, Edinburgh

Macmillan. New Testament Commentaries, Macmillan (deceased)

Mentor. Fearn: Christian Focus Publications

Moffatt. The Moffatt New Testament Commentary, Harper (deceased).

Moody. Commentary series, eg. Wycliffe Exegetical Commentaries, Moody Press, Chicago (deceased)

MPA Books - Biblical Application Series, St Matthias Press, Aus./UK.

NAC. The New American Commentary, in preparation and reflecting An American Commentary, Broadman Press, USA.

NCB. The New Century Bible Commentary, Oliphants / Marshall Morgan & Scott / Marshall Pickering / Eerdmans / Sheffield Academic (deceased).

NCBC. The New Cambridge Bible Commentary, Cambridge University Press, 2000 + series replacing the CBC series.

New Clarendon Bible, replacing the older Clarendon Bible, Clarendon Press, Oxford, England (deceased).

NCC. New Covenant Commentary Series, New Creation Publications Inc.

NIBC. New International Biblical Commentary, Hendrickson / Paternoster

NICNT. The New International Commentary on the New Testament, Eerdmans (formerly The New London commentary on the New Testament, Marshall, Morgan & Scott).

NICOT. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament, Eerdmans

NIGTC. The New International Greek Testament Commentary, Eerdmans.

NIVABC. NIV Application Bible Commentary, Zondervan.

NTL / OTL. The New / Old Testament Library - A Commentary, The Westminster John Knox Press Philadelphia / SCM Press London.

NTR. New Testament Readings, Routledge, London / New York.

Pelican. The Pelican New Testament Commentaries, Penguin Books. Later published as the Westminster Pelican Commentaries, Westminster Press, Philadelphia (deceased).

Pentecostal. Pentecostal Commentary series, Deo Publishing, UK.

Phillips. The J.B. Phillips Commentaries, Macmillan and Fontana (deceased).

Paideia. Paideia New Testament Commentaries, Baker Academic.

Pillar. The Pillar New Testament Commentary, Eerdmans/Apollos.

Reading. A Literary and Theological Commentary. Smyth and Helways.

REBC. Revised Expositors Bible Commentary, Zondervan.

REC. Reformed Expository Commentary Series, P &R Publishing.

Sacra Pagina. Biblical Commentaries, Liturgical Press.

Sheffield Guides. Guides to the Old and New Testament, Sheffield Academic Press.

SRC. A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, Eerdmans.

Torch. The Torch Bible Commentaries, SCM Press, London and USA (deceased).

TPI New Testament Commentaries, Trinity Press International and SCM Press (deceased).

Tyndale. Tyndale Old/New Testament Commentaries. Inter-Varsity Press.

UBCS. Understanding the Bible Commentary Series, Baker Publishing.

Wesleyan. The Wesleyan Bible Commentary, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans.

Word. Word Biblical Commentary, Word Books.

ZECNT. The Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, USA.


Select Bible Commentaries

Bible Commentary Series

Index of studies:


[Pumpkin Cottage]